Found in the Western Ghats, these large beautiful birds inundate the forest with a multitude of sounds ranging from a repetitive 'kok' to a shrill whistle. Their distinguishing feature is the large humped casque above the beak. During nesting, the females isolate themselves in tree cavities for 3-4 months and cover the entrance with bird droppings, leaving only a small opening for the male to deliver food for her. The birds are endangered by the loss of old large ficus trees, their preferred habitat. Conservation efforts are focussed on identifying hornbill nesting trees and protecting them.